Course Description

Course Name

Organic Chemistry

Session: VSOU1722

Hours & Credits

3 Credits

Prerequisites & Language Level

Taught In English

  • There is no language prerequisite for courses at this language level.

Overview

You will benefit from a familiarity with General Chemistry concepts of electronegativity, Lewis structures, and resonance. Chapters and the tentative order they will be covered are listed below. Not all of the sections in these chapters will be covered. Iʼll give you more detailed coverage information in class.

Detailed list of Topics:

CHAPTER 1 – Structure and Bonding Atoms and atomic theory Elements and the periodic table Ionic and covalent bonding Lewis structures; the octet rule; resonance Formal charge and oxidation number Molecular orbital theory Molecular shape, VSEPR and hybridization Depictions of organic structures

CHAPTER 2 – Structure and Reactivity Kinetics and thermodynamics Acids and bases; nucleophiles and electrophiles; two-electron “curved” arrows Functional groups Alkanes; types of isomers; structure and nomenclature Conformations and their energies

CHAPTER 3 – The Reactions of Alkanes Bond dissociation and radicals Halogenation of alkanes; reactivity and selectivity

CHAPTER 4 – Cyclic Alkanes Structure and nomenclature Stability; ring strain Cyclohexane; the chair conformation Axial and equatorial substituents; conformational stability

CHAPTER 5 – Stereochemistry Chirality; optical activity; enantiomers Relative and absolute configuration; R/S nomenclature Structural representations of molecules with stereocenters Molecules with multiple stereocenters: diastereomers and meso compounds Reactions involving stereocenters

CHAPTER 6 – Haloalkanes: Bimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Interaction of nucleophiles with haloalkanes The mechanism of a polar reaction: kinetics of SN2 displacement Evidence for and consequences of the mechanism: stereochemical inversion Effect of leaving group, nucleophile and substrate on SN2 reactivity

CHAPTER 7 – Haloalkanes: Unimolecular Substitution and Pathways of Elimination Secondary and tertiary haloalkanes: solvolysis Unimolecular substitution; evidence for and consequences of Carbocations and their relative stability Elimination: the E1 and E2 processes; Saytzeff and Hofmann regiochemistry Substitution vs elimination—how to tell which predominates, and by what mechanism

CHAPTER 8 – Properties of Alcohols and Synthetic Strategy in their Preparation Alcohols: properties, structure and nomenclature; hydrogen bonding Acidic and basic properties; comparisons with water Methods of preparation: by substitution reactions Methods of preparation: by addition reactions Grignard reagents in alcohol synthesis Working synthesis problems: retrosynthetic analysis

CHAPTER 9 – The Reactions of Alcohols and the Chemistry of Ethers Substitution and elimination reactions of alcohols: turning OH into a good leaving group Carbocation rearrangements Ethers: properties and nomenclature; reactivity and use as solvents Ethers: synthesis methods Cyclic ethers: oxacyclopropanes (epoxides)

CHAPTER 10 – Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy NMR as a tool to determine molecular structure Chemical shifts, chemical equivalence, integration, and how to use them Spin-spin splitting and what it tells you

CHAPTER 11 – Alkenes I; Infrared Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry Structure and nomenclature of alkenes: the pi bond NMR Spectroscopy of alkenes Infrared spectroscopy: the detection of functional groups Mass spectrometry and its uses in organic structural determination Catalytic hydrogenation and the relative stability of alkenes Preparation of alkenes by elimination reactions; stereo- and regioselectivity INTERLUDE: strategies for solving organic chemistry problems

CHAPTER 12 – Alkenes II Addition reactions: energetic considerations Catalytic hydrogenation; stereochemistry Additions of electrophiles: regioselectivity; Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov addition Additions to both carbons: dihydroxylation Ozonolysis

CHAPTER 13 – Alkynes Structure and nomenclature; the triple bond Spectroscopy Preparation by double elimination Acidity of the alkynyl CH bond; alkynyl anions in synthesis Addition reactions

*Course content subject to change